By Hafeez Malik
A collective endeavour of students highlighting a few of the major family determinants of Soviet overseas coverage. there's a basic consensus that coverage makers are inspired by way of Islam, the Soviet-Central Asian nationalities, oil and geography.
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Extra info for Domestic Determinants of Soviet Foreign Policy towards South Asia and the Middle East
Bhutto normalized Pakistan's relations with the Soviet Union and a degree of harmony prevailed during 1971-7. Two years later in 1979 the Soviet Union militarily intervened in Afghanistan to protect the Communist government of Afghanistan's Peoples' Democratic Party, which was about to be overthrown by the Afghan Mujahideen, operating from Pakistan. Once again, Soviet-Pakistan relations became hostile; and Pakistan reinvigorated its military connection with the United States. Combined US, Pakistan, Saudi and Chinese support to the Mujahideen forced the Soviet Union to terminate its intervention in Afghanistan.
In the June 1988 Moscow summit 'the Gulf was hardly discussed'. However, he is cautiously optimistic that an opportunity might arise 'for a new era in the US-Soviet relationship with respect to Gulf'. Then an attempt could be made to identify and build on common interests. This superpower understanding 'could have very positive impact on restoring tranquility' in the Gulf region, and add a 'collateral benefit to the overall superpower relationship'. This is not only cautious, but healthy optimism; but watch out, Ambassador Twinam cautions: 'old ways die hard, and each party will be tempted to play the zero-sum game'.
Efforts to slant NAM in Moscow's favor 15. Sino-Soviet Conflict (1969) on the Ussuri River, and on the XinjiangKazakhastan border 16. Soviet-Indian Treaty of Friendship (1971) added a strategic dimension to relations with India 17. Support to Vietnam against China 18. Intervention in Afghanistan justified 19. Preference for a consensus-style coalition government in Afghanistan, and opposition to Islamic fundamentalist one Indian foreign policies I. Disapproval of US doctrine of Soviet containment 2.