By Edward J. Erickson
No severe research has ever tested the explicit purposes for the Ottoman defeat. Erickson's learn fills this hole through learning the operations of the Ottoman military from October 1912 via July 1913, and by way of supplying a finished rationalization of its doctrines and making plans methods. This booklet is written at an operational point that information each crusade on the point of the military corps. greater than 30 maps, various orders of conflict, and genuine Ottoman military operations orders illustrate how the Turks deliberate and fought their battles. Of specific observe is the inclusion of the single special historical past in English of the Ottoman X Corps' Sarkoy amphibious invasion. additionally integrated are definitive appendix approximately Ottoman army aviation and a precis of the Turks' efforts to include the teachings realized from the battle into their army constitution in 1914.The Ottoman Empire fought the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 opposed to the joint forces of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia—and was once decisively defeated. The Ottoman military is usually depicted as a mob of poorly clad, faceless Turks inept of their makes an attempt to struggle a latest warfare. but by way of 1912, the Ottoman military, which used to be developed at the German version, was once in lots of methods extra complicated than definite eu armies.
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Extra resources for Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912-1913
2. , 39 3. , 39. 4. , 40. 5. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire; Volume 2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808–1975 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 282– 287. 6. Hall, The Balkan Wars 1912–1913: Prelude to the First World War (London: Routledge, 2000), 13. For a full-text Turkish translation of these agreements, see Turkish General Staff, Balkan Harbi (1912– 1913), 263–267. 7. Turkish General Staff, Balkan Harbi (1912–1913), 268–269 (full-text Turkish version of the agreement).
All doctrinal concepts, principles, and tactical methods were taught using German manuals. In August of the third year, the students went on their staff ride (as did their German contemporaries), an arduous, practical field exercise requiring them to demonstrate a practical understanding of military skills. At the end of September, the class graduated. The graduates were ranked by order of merit and assigned individual numbers within their class (from highest to lowest). The top ten graduates received a special notation in their records.
24 As in Plan Number 1, geography forced the Turks to split their forces into western and eastern armies. In Thrace, they planned to deploy 308 infantry battalions, with a further 301 battalions sent to Macedonia. Although the Turks enjoyed an apparent margin of numerical superiority, geography forced them to split their forces into smaller groups to oppose their individual enemies. Furthermore, the Turks were forced to maintain strong forces along the Greek border and along their interior Balkan railroad system.