Cytokinesis in Animal Cells (Developmental and Cell Biology by R. Rappaport

By R. Rappaport

This e-book strains the background of a few of the key principles within the box and provides an account of our present wisdom of animal cytokinesis. It includes descriptions of department in several different types of cells and the proposed causes of the mechanisms underlying the obvious occasions. the writer additionally describes and explains experiments devised to check phone department theories. The forces precious for cytokinesis now seem to originate from the interplay of linear polymers and motor molecules that experience roles in strength creation, movement and form swap that ensue in different stages of the biology of the mobilephone. The localization of the force-producing mechanism to a constrained linear a part of the subsurface is because of the mitotic gear, an analogous cytoskeletal constitution that insures orderly mitosis.

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The region of surface indentation in the primary phase becomes a site of intense surface growth, and the furrow surface light- FORCE IMPLIED: ACTIVE EXPANSION. 46 CYTOKINESIS IN ANIMAL CELLS ens as it incorporates unpigmented subsurface cytoplasm. The necessary additional firm gelated material that supports the expanding furrow surface is assumed to be provided by subcortical cytoplasmic streaming directed toward the furrow. In this way, wall growth occurs at the expense of central sol. At the same time, Chambers (1938) proposed that a similar mechanism divides echinoderm eggs, and he emphasized the role of visible currents in relocating potential gel material to the furrow region.

THEORIES OF CELL DIVISION 37 approached the poles, the regional difference would increase until the equatorial surface behaved like a constricting band. McClendon in 1912 devised a convincing model in which a drop of oil, representing the cell, divided when the surface tension of diametrically opposite regions was rapidly reduced by applying sodium hydroxide. At the same time that the equator constricted, McClendon saw surface movement from the poles that converged at the equator and then returned poleward through the axis of the elongated drop.

Heidenhain's cytological methods allowed accurate observation of changes in chromosomal configuration, the achromatic parts of the mitotic apparatus, and the external cell contour. The assumptions of Heidenhain's model were: a. The rays that originate at the centrosomes are contractile, and rays of equal length exert equal force. b. Longer rays exert greater force. c. The rays are firmly attached to the surface. The movement of the daughter chromosomes was attributed to the contractile rays, and the subsequent attachments of the rays from both poles of the mitotic apparatus to the surface could be construed as a continuation or modest modification of that relationship.

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