Chemical and Functional Genomic Approaches to Stem Cell by Sheng Ding

By Sheng Ding

Scientists think that stem cells have the aptitude to revolutionize the remedy of various ailments and prerequisites. This consultant covers contemporary advances in applied sciences and their functions in stem telephone biology, addressing using either embryonic and grownup stem cells and discussing assorted applied sciences, together with genome-wide expression research, informatics, chemical genomics, and extra. purposes lined surround self-renewal, differentiation, reprogramming, and regeneration in version organisms. this can be a prime reference for practising pros enthusiastic about stem phone examine and scholars.

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125] Blyszczuk P, Czyz J, Kania G, Wagner M, Roll U, St-Onge L, Wobus AM: Expression of Pax4 in embryonic stem cells promotes differentiation of nestin-positive progenitor and insulin-producing cells, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:998–1003 (2003). [126] Miyazaki S, Yamato E, Miyazaki J: Regulated expression of pdx-1 promotes in vitro differentiation of insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells, Diabetes 53:1030– 1037 (2004). [127] Hori Y, Rulifson IC, Tsai BC, Heit JJ, Cahoy JD, Kim SK: Growth inhibitors promote differentiation of insulin-producing tissue from embryonic stem cells, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:16105–16110 (2002).

4 Negative Regulators of ES Cell Self-Renewal Socs3 Socs3 is a member of the family of suppressors of cytokine signaling, which act as classical negative regulators to attenuate the signal leading to their induction. In ES cells, Socs3 is an immediate target gene of the LIF/Stat3 pathway. Overexpression of Socs3 has been suggested to have an apoptotic effect on ES cells [73]. When ES cells are transfected with Socs3 transgenes, there is a significant decrease in colony formation. Among the formed colonies, the majority are morphologically differentiated even in the presence of LIF [66].

ES cells can be induced to differentiate into all somatic cell lineages via the formation of three-dimensional EBs or monolayer culture. ) three major neural cell types of the central nervous system, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendocytes, as well as subtypes of neurons, can be generated [94,95]. For instance, midbrain dopaminergic neurons were derived at relatively high efficiency from Nurr1 overexpressed ES cells or ES cells grown on stromal cell layers [83,96]. Addition of SHH and FGF8 seemed to dramatically increase the dopaminergic neuron production [83].

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