Black Americans. A Psychological Analysis by E. Earl Baughman

By E. Earl Baughman

Black american citizens: A mental research

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 0. Activity level Emotional expressiveness Dependency Need for encouragement Gregariousness Achievement motivation Social poise Reaction to failure Warmth Cooperativeness 11. Effort expended on lessons 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Emotional stability Submissiveness Suspiciousness Tenacity Anxiety level Reaction to success Cheerfulness Aggressiveness Attentiveness Consistency 22. Teacher's liking of child The data from the two years were combined and mean scores on each of the 22 traits were computed separately for the black and white children.

The Dominance score " . . is a measure of assertive, aggressive, leadership qualities*' while the Love score " . . is a measure of friendly, warm, cooperative characteristics (1965, p. 8 5 ) . ) Results for the two Dominance scores are plotted in Figure 13, separately for the two races. As shown there, the mean Dominance (Self) score for the black students is higher than that of the white students, but the mean Dominance (Ideal) score of the blacks is comparatively low. The same pattern characterizes the two Love scores (figure not shown).

More explicitly, a child perceives how he is treated in comparison with other children in his f a m i l y - o r to how other children in his circle are treated by their parents—and it is this concrete, comparative process that provides him with cues regarding his worth. If other children seem to be favored, for example, this signals to him that he must be less worthy than they. Compared to "parents in general" a particular set of parents may respond favorably to a child, but they may be even more positive in their behavior toward a second child in the family and thereby lay the basis for feelings of inadequacy in the first child.

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