Biomembrane Protocols: II. Architecture and Function by John M. Graham, Joan A. Higgins

By John M. Graham, Joan A. Higgins

There were many vital advances in our realizing of organic membrane constitution and serve as during the last decade. a lot of this growth has been pushed by way of the improvement of latest thoughts for learning membrane parts and their interactions. culture­ best friend, the research of membranes has principally happened in the domain names of biochemistry, actual chemistry, and mobile biology; yet a number of the most important advances have resulted from a diffusion into different disciplines, corresponding to molecular biology, immunology, and the medical sciences. In those volumes we have now tried to collect a few of these techniques―to mix the outdated and the recent. Biomembrane Protocols: II. structure and serve as is worried solely with the structure and actions of membranes, while the better half quantity, Biomembrane Protocols: I. Isolation and research, offers with their isolation and compositional research. the purpose of every bankruptcy is to supply designated technical and meth­ odological info that might permit the reader to accomplish the tech­ nique effectively, with no the necessity to seek advice different texts. precise reports of membrane constitution and serve as aren't incorporated, other than the place they're suitable to the alternative or efficacy of a specific proce­ dure. as well as fabrics and techniques sections, every one bankruptcy has a Notes part that explains the explanations for taking sure steps and professional­ vides sensible counsel for utilizing the suggestions to different platforms.

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B Transmissionsspektrum eines Vallisneria-Blattes. MPAGXE (1957). Nach Untersuchungen von MACROBBIE (1965) ist es wahrscheinlich, daB die Zelle beide Prinzipien auszuntitzen vermag, die unmittelbare Koppelung des Transportes an die Elektronentibertragungsreaktionen und die indirekte Ausnutzung der in der ATP gespeicherten Energie. Das von MACROBBIE benutzte Schema (Abb. 20) des gegenwartig angenommenen Mechanismus der photosynthetischen Lichtreaktionen macht deutlich, wie experimentell zwischen den beiden Moglichkeiten unterschieden werden kann.

1st bei der Vorbehandlung CO 2 zugegen, ergibt sich ein Effekt, der mit dem der Saccharosezugabe vergleichbar ist. In Abwesenheit von CO 2 muB die Belichtung nach einem von der Bildung von Kohlenhydraten unabhangigen Mechanismus wirken (vgl. auch ARIsz 1960 a). Befindet sich die Ionen-aufnehmende Blattzone im Licht und die nichtabsorbierende Zone im Dunkeln, gelangt sehr wenig Cl- in die zweite Zone. Die Hauptmenge der aufgenommenen Ionen wird in der belichteten Aufnahmezone in die Vacuolen transportiert und dort gespeichert.

Man erweiterte daher die Definition des aktiven Transportes auf: Transport gegen ein Gefalle des elektro-chemischen Potentials. Nach dieser Definition waren die Erscheinungen der "negativen Osmose", des "inkongruenten Salztransportes" und des Transportes in "Deviationssystemen" als aktiver Transport zu bezeichnen. Diese Phanomene sind an nicht biologischen Modellsystemen eingehend untersucht worden (SCHLOGL 1964, SCHONBORN und WOERMANN 1967). Bei der negativen Osmose, dem inkongruenten Salztransport und dem Transport in Deviationsgebieten erreichen die Systeme aber streng genommen keinen stationaren Zustand *, wie er ffir die biologischen Membranen charakteristisch * Unter dem stationaren Zustand eines Systems versteht man den Zustand, in dem die Zeit-Ableitungen aller intensiven Zustandsvariablen, wie Konzentrationen aller Teilchensorten, Druck und Temperatur verschwinden.

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