Biochemistry of Signal Transduction and Regulation, Third by Prof. Dr. Gerhard Krauss(auth.)

By Prof. Dr. Gerhard Krauss(auth.)

Content material:
Chapter 1 The legislation of Gene Expression (pages 1–87):
Chapter 2 The rules of Enzyme job (pages 89–114):
Chapter three constitution and serve as of sign Pathways (pages 115–149):
Chapter four Signaling by means of Nuclear Receptors (pages 151–177):
Chapter five G Protein?Coupled sign Transmission Pathways (pages 179–229):
Chapter 6 Intracellular Messenger ingredients: “Second Messengers” (pages 231–268):
Chapter 7 Ser/Thr?Specific Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphatases (pages 269–309):
Chapter eight sign Transmission through Transmembrane Receptors with Tyrosine?Specific Protein Kinase task (pages 311–354):
Chapter nine sign Transmission through Ras Proteins (pages 355–381):
Chapter 10 Intracellular sign Transduction: The Protein Cascades of the MAP Kinase Pathways (pages 383–393):
Chapter eleven Membrane Receptors with linked Tyrosine Kinase task (pages 395–416):
Chapter 12 different Receptor periods (pages 417–427):
Chapter thirteen law of the cellphone Cycle (pages 429–468):
Chapter 14 Malfunction of Signaling Pathways and Tumorigenesis: Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes (pages 469–509):
Chapter 15 Apoptosis (pages 511–532):

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Extra info for Biochemistry of Signal Transduction and Regulation, Third Edition

Example text

The preinitiation complex is stabilized and favored by interactions of the general transcription factors with the TAFs (TAF: TATA box binding protein associated factor). After the formation of the closed pre-initiation complex and under ATP requirement, melting of the DNA and transition to the open complex occurs, in which the first nucleotide is added in the actual initiation step. The subsequent phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II causes the dissociation of the RNA polymerase from the promoter and transition to the elongation phase.

After the incorporation of the first 8-10 nucleotides into the transcript, the sigma factor dissociates from the holoenzyme, and the remaining core enzyme carries out the rest of the elongation. There are several sigma factors in E. coli (r70, r54, r32, r28) which can associate with the core enzyme to form the holoenzyme. The various sigma factors differ significantly with respect to their cognate promotor sequences. The overwhelming majority of the promotors in E. coli are recognized and activated by r70-containing holoenzymes.

The trans-activating domain, as well as on the overall protein structure, is currently available for the steroid hormone receptors, among others (see Chapter 4). Concerted Action of Transcriptional Activators and Coactivators in the Regulation of Transcription The formation of an active, regulation-competent initiation complex for transcription in eucaryotes demands the concerted action of a large number of proteins. It is estimated that more than 100 different proteins participate in the initiation of transcription in eucaryotes.

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