By Henning Graf Reventlow, William Farmer
The quantity comprises the contributions to a symposium within which experts in numerous fields labored jointly within the try to throw via their cooperation extra gentle at the stipulations - theological convictions and worldview, political weather, impression of country officers, academic associations and church buildings - which have been influential within the improvement of religious study within the moment 1/2 the nineteenth century. The dialogue originated with a different challenge: the thesis of William Farmer, one of many co-editors of the quantity, that the appointment of Heinrich Julius Holtzmann, who defended the concern of the gospel of Mark because the oldest synoptic gospel, to the recent testomony professorship in Strasbourg in 1872 was once the results of an immediate intervention of the emperial chancellor Bismarck within the context of the kulturkampf, who wanted thereby to weaken the Roman Catholic place protecting the supremacy of the chair of St Peter by means of the authority of the gospel of St Matthew (Mt sixteen, 18). The query belongs within the broader context of the presuppositions of Bible exegesis within the moment half the nineteenth century. As either editors agreed that the problem isn't really but eventually settled, it appeared to be crucial for coming to deeper insights into the stipulations less than which biblical exegesis was once enacted within the nineteenth century to expand the surroundings and to incorporate different facets that will throw extra gentle on a interval largely unknown to many students belonging to the current new release. for that reason experts of alternative fields joined a symposium with the intention to elucidate from their respective viewpoints and pursuits simple topics and techniques of biblical exegesis, clinical theology and the kin among kingdom and college within the nineteenth centruy, specifically through the interval of the second one Reich. however the issues weren't constrained to this targeted zone. They incorporated additionally a much wider outlook into the 1st half the century and around the borde
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Additional info for Biblical Studies and the Shifting of Paradigms, 1850-1914 (JSOT Supplement)
IV. Struktur und Krisen des Kaiserreiches (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1969). , Geschichte des Kulturkampfes im deutschen Reiche, im Auftrage des Zentralkomitees fur die Generalversammlungen der Katholiken in Deutschland. I. Die Vorgeschichte; II. Die Kulturkampfgesetzgebung, 1871-1874; III. ; Freiburg im Breisgau: Herdersche Verlagshandlung, 1911-16). , American Opinion on the Kulturkampf (1871-1882) (PhD thesis, Catholic University of America, 1941; Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1941).
5-7 November 1985. 5. Meijboom and Kiwiet, History and Critique, 'Chapter 2: The Development of the Marcan Hypothesis in France', pp. 45-63. 6. For much of the biographical information on scholars in this paper, I have utilized the following standard reference works: The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, embracing Biblical, historical, doctrinal, and practical theology and Biblical, theological, and ecclesiastical biography from the 52 Biblical Studies and the Shifting of Paradigms With the exception of Eduard Reuss, these scholars are rarely included in twentieth century reviews of the history of the discussion of the Synoptic Problem.
The consequences of the Kulturkampf were extremely serious for the Church. More than a million Catholics were deprived of the sacraments because thousands of priests were in exile or in prison. There were no bishops available to ordain new priests, because they had been relieved by the state of their sees after their failure to secure the approval of the prefects to their ordination; two archbishops (Cologne and Posen) had been exiled. The government forbade parish priests to visit other parishes than their own to give the sacraments.