BHLH transcription factors in development and disease by Reshma Taneja

By Reshma Taneja

This new quantity of Current issues in Developmental Biology offers a complete set of stories on bHLH transcription factors.  bHLH elements are significantly well-known for his or her assorted roles in developmental techniques and their disorder underlies numerous human pathologies.  every one bankruptcy is authoritatively written via a number one professional within the box and discusses each attainable element of this massive and various field.

  • Covers the realm of easy helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription components in improvement and disease
  • International board of authors
  • Provides a entire set of stories on our present realizing at the functionality of bHLH components in improvement of varied tissues and the way de-regulation of those components may cause, or is associated with, numerous human diseases

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Second, a potential caveat in those studies was their reliance on cell lines as opposed to primary cells. It has been suggested that continuous maintenance of cell lines in culture could result in changes in lineage identity, for example, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and this could greatly potentiate the ability of Myod to induce myogenic differentiation in some cell lines (Fong & Tapscott, 2013). , embryoid body derivation or mesenchymal derivatives of ES cells). 3). A major breakthrough was reported recently, where high efficiency of paraxial mesoderm and skeletal myogenesis was reported from ES cells, even in the absence of genetic modifications ( J.

2011; Caretti, Di Padova, Micales, Lyons, & Sartorelli, 2004). Accordingly, depletion of Suz12 in vitro markedly accelerated myogenic differentiation, in marked contrast to the situation in ES cells (Pasini, Bracken, Hansen, Capillo, & Helin, 2007). H3K27 methylation of class II genes is independent of PRC2 and dependent on PRC1. This regulatory mechanism ensures the retention of H3K27me3 on class II genes, which must remain silenced during differentiation. Among the Mrfs, Myog was the only gene marked by the repressive H3K27me3 mark, which was replaced by the ones correlated with activation (H3K27ac, H3K4me1, p300, Pol II) during differentiation.

Nevertheless, a few concerns remain. For all reprogramming strategies, it is important to clearly identify the cell type generated using gene expression signatures, cellular organization of structural proteins, morphology, epigenetic marks, and functional attributes (Addis & Epstein, 2013). In the studies mentioned above, the molecular signature of ES/iPS-derived myogenic cells was not clearly investigated. , 2009), the intrinsic properties of myoblasts are different. Therefore, the phenotypic subtype of myogenic cells obtained has not been clarified.

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