Avian reproductive tactics: Female and male perspectives

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1990]). One study of the Wood Warbler estimated the fraction of polygynousmales in the population at 23% (Gyllensten et al. 1990); in this same study,molecular analysisof blood from 13 families uncoveredno incidence of paternity exclusion. This occurs becausemale fecundity dependsnot AVIAN REPRODUCTIVE TACTICS 43 only on the number of mates but to a limited extent on the quality of resources or parentalcare males provide, which effectively lowers the male sexualselection 'gradient (Fig. la). Males in this mating systemare expectedto exert some degree of direct or indirect (via female-female competition)mate choice (Trivers 1972; Burley 1977).

Mate fidelity: If males have little control over their mate's EPC behavior, they may nonethelessseekto ascertaintheir mate'sintentionsimmediatelyprior to and during the fertile period, and thereby gauge paternity. Females might use consortshipto convincesocial matesof their paternityin order to obtain maximal PE from them. Parental ability or willingness: Males and/or females might use consortshipto convince social mates that they will invest substantialPE. Alternatively, males and females may use consortshipto work out a social contract of mutually agreeable PE for an impending clutch (Burley 1988); females might adjust clutch size depending on their expectationof male assistance,based on information acquired during consortship.

Considerationof the above list of activitiesconstitutingME leadsus to concludethat the discrepancy may not be so great as sometimesimplied. Indeed, it would seemthat in a population in which thereis a substantialincreasein male ME to extra-pairactivities, female ME is likely to increasein response. Consortships between socially mated individuals that involve close physical associationcommonly occur prior to and/or during the interval during which femalesare fertile, that is, duringthe period over which spermmay be storedand function in fertilization.

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