By Leo G. Lesage (auth.), Ashot A. Sarkisov, Alain Tournyol du Clos (eds.)
A nice variety of nuclear submarines are as a result of be decommissioned ahead of 2000. The political judgements surrounding the disposal of nuclear booths, radioactive wastes and spent gasoline vary substantially among the international locations that personal the boats. the choice makers concerned hence need assistance in evaluating and assessing replacement strategies for the decommissioning in their nuclear submarine fleets. the current quantity bargains such information, with its discussions of the dangers linked to long term water garage of the boats, radioactive and chemical infection, spent gas and waste administration, and dealing with and recycling reactor compartments.
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Extra info for Analysis of Risks Associated with Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning, Dismantling and Disposal
But, following these rules it is hardly possible technically to prepare a rector compartment for shipping. The existent normative documentation on the organization of the complex utilization of the nuclear submarines is required to be considerably corrected and revised. This is true as for the questions of the nuclear and radiation safety provision for the long afloat storage ( NS and floating blocks) and for the problems of the reactor compartment module formation (as containers with SRW). Thus, we consider that it is necessary to elaborate the following documents and requirements: • unified requirements on the radiation safety provision for the reactor compartments of the nuclear submarines of different models; • special radiation and hygienic standard for the reactor compartments and 3compartment modules; • calculations of the limits for the SRW load into a reactor compartment according to the total activity and radionuclide composition; • analogous documentation for unsafe (damaged) nuclear submarines to be utilized; • standard method for the formation of additional radiation-protective barriers for a NS reactor compartment at the sites of major intensity of the radiation factors for each NS model (near the tank of biological shielding, tank of iron-water shielding and so on) and evaluation of its efficiency.
We put an issue on a radical way of removing problems of ensuring nuclear safety with reference to decommissioned submarines stored afloat. The more so, as the solution of problems of maintenance of radiation safety simultaneously will be essentially simplified also, as soon as more than 95 % from total of most radiation-dangerous radionuclides is removed from such submarines when they are defuelled. The probability is not excluded, that the submarine will sink in an aquatory. We have three times observed such cases on Kamchatka.
22 REFERENCES 1. 1 Gusev, In «Impacts of Nuclear Releases into Aquatic environment, IAEA, 1975. 2. N. Marey, Sanitary Protection of Water Basins from Pollution by Radioactive Substances, Atomizdat, 1976. 3. E. TESTOV State Supervision Inspection on Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Ministry ofDefense ofthe Russian Federation A process of decommissioning, storage and complex utilization of nuclear submarines has to be accomplished by the required measures on the environmental protection and the nuclear, radiation and ecological safety provision.