By James C. Daly, Denis P. Galipeau
Built-in circuits (ICs) don't continuously paintings the 1st time. many stuff can and do get it wrong in analog circuit designs. there are various universal error that regularly require high priced chip remodel and refabrication, all of which might be shunned whilst designers are conscious of the pitfalls. to gain good fortune, IC designers desire a entire toolbox-a toolbox crammed not just with an outstanding historical past in electronics, layout ideas and research talents, but additionally with the main priceless instrument of all: adventure.
Analog BiCMOS layout bargains IC layout engineers the educational akin to a long time of sensible event. Culled from the careers of practising engineers, it offers the best equipment and the pitfalls most often encountered within the layout of biCMOS built-in circuits. available to a person who has taken a path in electronics, this booklet covers the fundamental layout of bandgap voltage references, present mirrors, amplifiers, and comparators. It experiences universal layout blunders frequently missed and provides layout thoughts used to treatment these problems.
With its whole assurance of uncomplicated circuit construction blocks, complete info of universal layout pitfalls, and a compendium of layout and structure difficulties and options, Analog BiCMOS layout is the appropriate reference for IC designers and engineers, fledgling and skilled alike. learn it to enhance your history, browse it for concepts on warding off pitfalls, and if you run right into a challenge, use it to discover a solution.
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Additional resources for Analog BiCMOS Design: Practices and Pitfalls
13 Band bending at the onset of moderate inversion. charge in the silicon increases to include electrons as well as ionized acceptors. The electrons are mobile and can contribute to current ﬂow. A positive gate voltage reduces electron energy in the silicon under the gate. 13. With electrons as carriers in the p-type silicon, the channel is said to be inverted. It is convenient to deﬁne the onset of moderate inversion to be when the bands at the silicon surface at the oxide interface are 2φf below their values in the bulk away from the surface.
This process results in an average velocity called the drift velocity. As the electric ﬁeld increases, in response to an increase in applied voltage, the drift velocity increases. The drift velocity is proportional to the electric ﬁeld vd = µE. The proportionality constant µ is the mobility. The result is Ohm’s law where current is proportional to voltage. 5E4 V/cm, current no longer increases linearly with voltage. The velocity saturates at a value close to the thermal velocity for carriers in silicon.
This is referred to as drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL). Charge Sharing Charge sharing is used to model the inﬂuence of source and drain voltages and transistor length on the threshold voltage in small MOS transistors. The threshold voltage is the gate voltage required to deplete the channel of holes and attract mobile electrons. All four regions, the gate, the substrate, the source and the drain, aﬀect the channel surface potential and therefore the threshold voltage. The substrate is sometimes referred to as the back gate.