By Bryan Kolb, Ian Q. Whishaw
Authored by way of popular researchers and veteran academics, An creation to mind and behaviour is helping scholars attach nervous-system job to human behaviour. Drawing at the most up-to-date study and revealing case experiences, this 4th version contains a new subject matter of epigenetics, elevated pedagogy, and up-to-date insurance all through.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Brain and Behavior (4th Edition)
Interplay of Genes, Environment, and Experience Genes alone cannot explain most traits. Mendel realized that environment plays a role in how genes express traits: planting tall peas in poor soil reduces their height, for example. Experience likewise plays a part. Children who are above average in intelligence but attend a substandard school, for example, have learning experiences that are far different from the experiences of similarly intelligent children who attend a model school. Epigenetics is the study of differences in gene expression related to environment and experience.
Descartes’s dualistic theory faces many problems. It quickly became apparent to scientists that people who have damaged pineal bodies or even no pineal body at all still display normal intelligent behavior. Today, we understand that the pineal gland plays a role in behavior related to biological rhythms, but it does not govern human behavior. We now know that fluid is not pumped from the brain into muscles when they contract. indd 7 Pineal gland Ventricles Figure 1-4 Dualist Hypothesis To explain how the mind controls the body, Descartes suggested that the mind resides in the pineal gland, where it directs the flow of fluid through the ventricles and into the body to investigate objects and to become informed about their properties.
It enfolds the brainstem (Figure 1-1B), which is responsible for most of our unconscious behaviors. The second major brainstem structure, the cerebellum, Figure 1-2 Major Divisions of the is specialized for learning and coordinating skilled movements. Human Nervous System The brain and Harvey clearly wanted to preserve not just his brain but his self—his consciousness, spinal cord together make up the central nervous his language, and his memory. This meaning of the term brain refers to something system.