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Additional info for Advances in protein chemistry. / Volume
Large effects were observed which were attributed to fibrous proteins. The scattering is said to increase with the mol. wt. of the protein, . 8TRUCTURAL PROTEINS OF CELLS AND TI8SUE8 33 though the relation is not linear. It is greater in yeast than in Eledone hemocyanin but less than in certain viruses, from which it is concluded that the effective mol. wt. of the intracellular protein lies between 17 and 20 X 10'. He ascribes the scattering to hypothetical vital protein complexes, which he calls vitaicts, and states that these complexes are broken down by death and adverse environment.
Giroud (1928) found the fibrous mitochondria of the gut cells of Ascaris uniaxially positive and concluded that the prctein chains are axially oriented. Grave (1937)found that in the rodlets of the distal convoluted tubule of amphibia the positivity could be reversed by immersion in high refractive index media, suggesting that the protein chains run parallel with the rodlet axis while lipid molecules extend with long axes perpendicular to this direction. The rod-like mitochondria of vitally stained pulmonate sex cells show birefringence which is negative with respect to the long axis, according to Monn6 (1940).
Secretory Granules. Claude (1943,a, b) isolated another fraction from saline extracts of liver and pancreas cells which is said to contain almost exclusively the zymogen or secretory granules long known to cytologists. 3% P. Like microsomes they are ribonucleoproteipphospholipid complexes, the lipid portion representing 20-24% of the total. The d-amino acid oxidme is said to be localized in these granules, none being in the microsome fraction. Claude also finds (personal communication) that practically all of the extractable succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase are associated with the secretion granules, very little being present in microsomes.