Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 16 by M.J. Berridge, J.E. Treherne, V.B. Wigglesworth (Eds.)

By M.J. Berridge, J.E. Treherne, V.B. Wigglesworth (Eds.)

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J. exp. Zool. 45, 255-277 Altmann, G. (1953). Hormonale Regelung des Wasserhaushaltes der Honigbiene. 2. Bienenforsch. 2, 11-16 Altmann, G. (1956). Die Regulation des Wasserhaushaltes der Honigbiene. Znsectes Sociaux 3, 33-40 Andrewartha, H. G. and Birch, L. C. (1954). The Distribution and Abundance of Animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London Arlian, L. G . and Eckstrand, I. A. (1975). Water balance in Drosophilu pseudoobscura, and its ecological implications. Ann. Ent. Am. 68, 827-832 Asahina, E.

The water activity (Aw) of insect haemolymph (osmotic concentration around 300-600 mOsm) is equivalent to 9 9 5 9 9 . 8 % RH, (Wharton and Richards, 1978) so that the net gradient for water movements is almost invariably outwards, except in saturated atmospheres. f. Kuhnelt, 1936). The loss of water is primarily related to air moisture content and the severity of the gradient between air and insect fluids. This can be only marginally altered by internal changes in osmotic concentration, so that the microclimate in which an insect lives is the critical parameter.

Hence there is no single optimal solution to the problem of integrating microclimate and physiological functioning; the chosen regimes of humidity, temperature, radiation and wind will be determined both by the intrinsic properties of the species and by the biotic and physical characteristics of available niches and their use by competing species. Because of these complex interactions, it has always proved difficult to draw conclusions about structural and physiological relations with climate on a global scale, the diversity of insects in all climates being such as to defeat attempts at generalisation.

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