By Geoffrey Burnstock Ph.D., D.Sc., F.A.A., Marcello Costa (auth.)
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Extra resources for Adrenergic Neurons: Their Organization, Function and Development in the Peripheral Nervous System
It is therefore apparent that the two major routes of metabolism of NA involve the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) (Axelrod, 1966; Kopin, 1972; Sharman, 1972). 2 Localization and properties of MAO The term 'monoamine oxidase' designates a group of enzymes which catalyse the oxidative deamination of monoamines (Gorkin, 1966; see Blaschko, 1972b, for historical background). MAO is localized within the double outer membrane of the mitochondria of various cell types including neurons (Snyder, Fischer & Axelrod, 1965; Tipton, 1967; Schnaitman, Erwin & Greenwaalt, 1967; Jarrott & Iversen, 1968; Giacobini & Kerpel-Fronius, 1970; Furness & Costa, 1971b; Jarrott, 1971a).
Increase of tyrosine conversion to dopa is fast in onset in the terminals, but there is no associated change in the cell bodies or in the axons (Roth, Stjame & von Euler, 1967b; Weiner & Rabadjija, 1968a, b; Thoenen, 1970; Bhatnagar & Moore, 1971a, 1972). In contrast, reduction of activity of adrenergic neurons following decentralization (Hertting, Potter & Axelrod, 1962; Fisher & Snyder, 1965; Musacchio & Weise, 1965; Sedvall, Weise & Kopin, 1968), and following increase of cytoplasmic NA (Alouisi & Weiner, 1966; Spector, Gordon, Sjoerdsma & Udenfriend, 1967; Udenfriend, 1968; Weiner, 1970; Dairman & Udenfriend, 1971; Spector, Tarver & Berkowitz, 1972; Weiner 42 BIOSYNTHESIS AND METABOLIC DEGRADATION OF NA & Bjur, 1972) is associated with decreased T-OH activity and NA synthesis from tyrosine.
In the rat superior cervical ganglion increased sympathetic activity leads to an increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity by a process of induction (synthesis of new enzyme). Reproduced with permission from Thoenen, 1972. increase in T -OH activity in the adrenergic cell bodies only after several hours and reaches a peak after several days (Axelrod, Mueller & Thoenen, 1970; Thoenen, 1970; Thoenen, Mueller & Axelrod, 1970; Thoenen, Kettler, Burkard & Saner, 1971; Bhatnagar & Moore, 1972; Figure 9).