By G. Alan Marlatt, Gary R. Vandenbos
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Extra resources for Addictive Behaviors: Readings on Etiology, Prevention, and Treatment
It is also noteworthy that studies of alcoholics, studies of individuals at high risk, and prospective studies of individuals who subsequently became alcoholic, have documented frequently features such as aggressivity (Kellam, Ersminger, & Simon, 1980), sensation seeking (Zuckerman, 1972), impulsivity (McCord, 1972), and social nonconformity (Robins, 1966). These characteristics do not represent the attributes of normative sociability but rather behavioral disinhibition. Complementing this conclusion are the results of several studies indicating that individuals who obtain a low sociability score on the California Psychological Inventory (in conjunction with a high behavioral disinhibition score measured by the MacAndrew Scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) obtain a greater stress-dampening effect from alcohol, compared with individuals whose scores are more normative (Sher & Levenson, 1982).
In a time of increasing concern about government expenditures for health and health care reform, the distinction between drug use and drug dependence deserves greater consideration, with commensurate allocation of resources in the direction of drug dependence syndromes that affect public health and society all too commonly. REFERENCES Adams, E. , Gfroerer, J. , & Rouse, B. A. (1989). Epidemiology of substance abuse including alcohol and cigarette smoking. Annals of the New Ymk Academy of Sciences, 562, 14-20.
Testing and abuse liability of drugs in humans. In M. W. Fischman & N. K. ), Testing for abuse liability of drugs in humans (NIDA Research Monograph No. 92, pp. 1-6). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Drug Abuse. 38 ANTHONY, WARNER, AND KESSLER Thompson, T. (1981). Behavioral mechanisms and loci of drug dependence: An overivew. In T. Thompson & C. E. ), Behavioral pharmacology of human drug dependence (NIDA Research Monograph No. 37, pp. 1-10). Rockville, M D National Institute of Drug Abuse.