By Yoshie Kobayashi
This dissertation is the 1st learn of kingdom feminism in a non-western state nation, targeting the actions and roles of the Women's Bureau of the Ministry of work in post-World struggle II Japan.
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Extra info for A Path Toward Gender Equality: State Feminism in Japan
Were there external or internal influences that forced women bureaucrats to set the agenda? How did they create a women’s policy alliance in the policymaking process? Examination of the women bureaucrats’ (of the Women’s Bureau) activities will demonstrate the significance of the external factor, which provides the Women’s Bureau the power to set the agenda by giving it political legitimacy, and of the women’s policy alliance, which provided them strong support from behind, at the beginning of the political decision-making process of the gender equality law in the patriarchal nature of politics and society in Japan.
By comparing the two groups of feminist theories, the next section clarifies the reasons for selecting state feminism as the theoretical framework for this book. The society-centered feminist theory consists of Marxist, radical, and socialist feminism, which attribute gender inequality to capitalist or patriarchic society or both. One of the characteristics of the society-centered feminist theory is to presume a one-sided relationship from society to state. The other characteristic is that these theories consider a state as a monolithic entity having patriarchal ideology or supporting capitalist society, and as an evil for women’s life.
Thus, the chapter demonstrates that how resources for the policymaking for the 1986 EEOL were produced and how the political compromises of the American occupation forces with the Japanese male political elites institutionalized a relatively weak women’s policy agency in government. LEGAL REFORMS BY THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION FORCES Improvement of Japanese women’s legal status, compared to the pre-war period, required amendment of the pre-war laws and enactment of new laws just after World War II.