# A New Method of Using X-Rays in Crystal Analysis by Clark G. L., Duane W.

By Clark G. L., Duane W.

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Multidisciplinary Methods for Analysis Optimization and Control of Complex Systems

This publication includes lecture notes of a summer time university named after the overdue Jacques Louis Lions. The summer time tuition was once designed to alert either Academia and to the expanding function of multidisciplinary equipment and instruments for the layout of complicated items in a number of components of socio-economic curiosity.

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Example text

In view of the following lemma, A0 and B 0 provide an example of A and B respectively as above. J / we mean the ring of endomorphisms of J defined over Q. 1. J / preserves A0 and B 0 . Proof. J / does not preserve A0 (the case of B 0 is symmetric). Then since the Jf ’s are simple, that means that some abelian subvariety Jg of A0 is isogenous to some abelian subvariety Jh of B 0 , where g ¤ h. Pick a prime `. If f is a newform, then let f denote the canonical absolutely irreducible `-adic representation attached to f .

Stein Key words elliptic curves • abelian varieties • modular degree • congruence primes • multiplicity one Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 11G05, 11610, 11G18, 11F33 1 Introduction Let E be an elliptic curve over Q. N /, where N is the conductor of E. N / ! N / (this can always be done by replacing E by an isogenous curve if needed). N / ! N / ! N /. N /; C/ be the newform attached to E. mod rE / for all n). Section 2 is about relations between rE and mE . For example, mE j rE . In [FM99, Q.

EndT M . Suppose m is a maximal ideal of T that satisfies the hypotheses of the lemma. To prove that Tm D T0m it suffices to prove the following claim: t u Claim: The map jT is surjective locally at m. Proof. It suffices to show that M is generated by a single element over T locally at m, and in turn, by Nakayama’s lemma, it suffices to check that the dimension of the T=m -vector space M=mM is at most one. N /=Fp /Œm. M=mM / Ä 1, which proves the claim. 12. , see [Dia97]). 8, all we needed was (locally) a non-zero free T-module (of finite rank, say) that is attached functorially to J .