A Functional Biology of Sticklebacks by R. J. Wootton (auth.)

By R. J. Wootton (auth.)

General Editor: Peter Calow, division of Zoology, college of Sheffield, England the most objective of this sequence might be to demonstrate and to give an explanation for the way in which organisms 'make a residing' in nature. on the center of this - their func­ tional biology - is the best way organisms gather after which utilize assets in metabolism, move, progress, replica, and so forth. those strategies will shape the basic framework of the entire books within the sequence. each one booklet will be aware of a specific taxon (species, relations, type or perhaps phylum) and may compile informa­ tion at the shape, body structure, ecology and evolutionary biology of the gang. the purpose may be not just to explain how organisms paintings, but in addition to contemplate why they've got come to paintings in that manner. through con­ centrating on taxa that are renowned, it truly is was hoping that the sequence won't in simple terms illustrate the luck of choice, but in addition exhibit the limitations imposed upon it by means of the physiological, morphological and advance­ psychological boundaries of the teams. one other very important characteristic of the sequence may be its organismic orien­ tation. every one ebook will emphasise the significance offunctional integra­ tion within the daily lives and the evolution of organisms. this is often an important on account that, notwithstanding it can be actual that organisms may be regarded as collections of gene-determined qualities, they however have interaction with their atmosphere as built-in wholes and it's during this context that specific characteristics were subjected to normal choice and feature evolved.

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The two pelvic spines are typically long and robust and are supported by a well developed bony pelvic skeleton, which forms a ventral shield on the belly. In some populations, however, the pelvic spines maybe absent and the pelvic skeleton vestigial or absent (Chapter 10). A feature of G. aculeatus is the range of variation in the development of the lateral plates (Bell, 1976; Wootton, 1976; Hagen and Moodie, 1982). 2). The completely plated morph has a continuous series of plates which run from just posterior of the head to the tail stalk, where they form a distinct caudal keel on each side of it.

After Anker (1978) r-Iunger. l):pically, the hunger of sticklebacks is manipulated experimentally by depriving the fish of food for known periods ()f Hme. Two studies have analysed in detail the effect of hunger on foraging behaviour. In a series of experiments by Tugendhat (1960a, b), the sticklebacks fed on a dense population of Tubifex in a relatively simple feeding compartment, whereas Beukema (1968) studied sticklebacks feeding on single Tubifex in a relatively complex feeding compartment made up of 18 hexagonal, interconnecting cells.

Higher speeds are used when the prey is a relatively thick earthworm than when it is a slender Tubifex. Speeds of up to 283mms- 1 have been observed (Anker, 1978). _The probability that a foraging sequence ends successfully with the consumption of a prey depends on a number of factors including the hunger of the fish, the palatability and density of the prey, and the extent to which the foraging is disturbed. 1: Gasterosteus aculeaWs Feeding on a Worm. After Anker (1978) r-Iunger. l):pically, the hunger of sticklebacks is manipulated experimentally by depriving the fish of food for known periods ()f Hme.

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